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周小川万字论述金融改革:有些改革被危机耽搁了

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月18日 16:57:34
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(全)(国)(政)(协)(副)(主)(席)(、中)(国)(人)(民)(银)(行)(行)(长)(周)(小)(川)(。图)(片)(来)(源)(:CFP
  编)(者)(按)(:
  2015年)(第)(19期)(《中)(国)(金)(融)(》杂)(志)(刊)(登)(了)(题)(为)(《周)(小)(川)(:金)(融)(改)(革)(发)(展)(及)(其)(内)(在)(逻)(辑)(》的)(文)(章)(,该)(文)(是)(中)(国)(人)(民)(银)(行)(行)(长)(周)(小)(川)(2015年)(5月)(27日)(在)(北)(京)(举)(行)(的)(全)(国)(政)(协)(委)(员)(学)(习)(报)(告)(会)(暨)(政)(协)(机)(关)(干)(部)(系)(列)(学)(习)(讲)(座)(上)(的)(讲)(话)(内)(容)(。
  在)(接)(近)(一)(万)(字)(的)(文)(章)(中)(,周)(小)(川)(回)(顾)(了)(20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(以)(来)(中)(国)(金)(融)(改)(革)(的)(背)(景)(、逻)(辑)(、路)(径)(和)(进)(展)(,并)(特)(别)(提)(及)(了)(1997年)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(暴)(以)(及)(2008年)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(期)(间)(的)(挑)(战)(和)(应)(对)(。周)(小)(川)(认)(为)(,转)(轨)(国)(家)(在)(转)(轨)(的)(过)(程)(中)(必)(然)(有)(巨)(大)(的)(财)(务)(窟)(窿)(,“如)(果)(没)(有)(强)(有)(力)(措)(施)(,不)(下)(大)(的)(决)(心)(,不)(清)(理)(财)(务)(不)(健)(康)(问)(题)(,不)(引)(入)(市)(场)(经)(济)(规)(律)(,银)(行)(体)(系)(将)(很)(难)(存)(续)(。”
  对)(于)(新)(阶)(段)(以)(市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(和)(多)(元)(化)(为)(导)(向)(的)(金)(融)(改)(革)(,周)(小)(川)(表)(示)(还)(有)(个)(别)(需)(要)(补)(课)(的)(内)(容)(,比)(如)(建)(立)(存)(款)(保)(险)(制)(度)(的)(初)(步)(框)(架)(和)(推)(进)(政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(改)(革)(,“因)(为)(有)(些)(改)(革)(过)(去)(曾)(经)(打)(算)(做)(,但)(由)(于)(遇)(到)(危)(机)(等)(各)(种)(各)(样)(的)(原)(因)(,被)(耽)(搁)(了)(下)(来)(。”
  周)(小)(川)(在)(文)(章)(中)(还)(对)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(进)(行)(了)(大)(段)(论)(述)(,他)(认)(为)(,“可)(以)(说)(是)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(的)(爆)(发)(,多)(少)(有)(点)(儿)(意)(外)(地)(把)(人)(民)(币)(推)(向)(国)(际)(社)(会)(了)(。”但)(同)(时)(他)(也)(承)(认)(,“要)(真)(想)(做)(强)(人)(民)(币)(,使)(其)(符)(合)(市)(场)(预)(期)(站)(到)(那)(个)(位)(置)(的)(话)(,我)(们)(就)(要)(做)(好)(自)(己)(的)(家)(庭)(作)(业)(,继)(续)(推)(进)(经)(济)(金)(融)(改)(革)(、改)(变)(相)(关)(规)(则)(,不)(断)(采)(取)(措)(施)(,以)(适)(应)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(的)(需)(要)(。”
  以)(下)(是)(全)(文)(:
  20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(:引)(进)(市)(场)(经)(济)(金)(融)(体)(系)(的)(基)(本)(结)(构)(
  20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(是)(我)(国)(国)(民)(经)(济)(向)(市)(场)(经)(济)(转)(轨)(的)(早)(期)(,金)(融)(市)(场)(领)(域)(改)(革)(的)(主)(要)(任)(务)(是)(引)(进)(市)(场)(经)(济)(金)(融)(体)(系)(的)(基)(本)(结)(构)(。
  在)(20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(之)(前)(的)(计)(划)(经)(济)(时)(代)(,我)(国)(“大)(一)(统)(”的)(金)(融)(体)(系)(中)(只)(有)(人)(民)(银)(行)(一)(家)(。当)(时)(金)(融)(体)(系)(最)(明)(显)(的)(特)(征)(是)(,人)(民)(银)(行)(既)(管)(宏)(观)(平)(衡)(,又)(提)(供)(商)(业)(性)(金)(融)(服)(务)(。80年)(代)(金)(融)(改)(革)(的)(一)(项)(主)(要)(内)(容)(就)(是)(改)(变)(这)(一)(金)(融)(组)(织)(体)(系)(结)(构)(,通)(过)(建)(立)(一)(些)(新)(的)(金)(融)(机)(构)(,将)(中)(央)(银)(行)(和)(商)(业)(性)(金)(融)(体)(系)(分)(开)(,构)(建)(一)(个)(所)(谓)(双)(层)(银)(行)(体)(系)(。在)(这)(个)(体)(系)(中)(,中)(央)(银)(行)(专)(注)(于)(宏)(观)(调)(控)(、金)(融)(监)(管)(和)(为)(银)(行)(提)(供)(支)(付)(清)(算)(等)(金)(融)(服)(务)(;商)(业)(性)(金)(融)(机)(构)(则)(从)(人)(民)(银)(行)(独)(立)(出)(来)(,面)(向)(企)(业)(和)(居)(民)(提)(供)(商)(业)(性)(金)(融)(服)(务)(。具)(体)(而)(言)(,中)(国)(工)(商)(银)(行)(、中)(国)(建)(设)(银)(行)(、中)(国)(银)(行)(、中)(国)(农)(业)(银)(行)(以)(及)(中)(国)(人)(民)(保)(险)(公)(司)(都)(是)(在)(20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(前)(后)(建)(立)(或)(恢)(复)(建)(立)(的)(。建)(设)(银)(行)(过)(去)(服)(务)(于)(财)(政)(功)(能)(;中)(国)(银)(行)(在)(恢)(复)(设)(立)(之)(前)(实)(际)(上)(是)(人)(民)(银)(行)(内)(部)(的)(国)(际)(局)((对)(外)(加)(挂)(一)(个)(牌)(子)();农)(业)(银)(行)(当)(时)(是)(一)(块)(虚)(的)(牌)(子)(;中)(国)(人)(民)(保)(险)(公)(司)(过)(去)(只)(做)(进)(出)(口)(方)(面)(涉)(及)(的)(货)(运)(险)(,是)(人)(民)(银)(行)(和)(财)(政)(部)(的)(下)(属)(机)(构)(。
  与)(此)(同)(时)(,80年)(代)(还)(在)(探)(索)(证)(券)(交)(易)(。当)(时)(没)(有)(成)(立)(股)(票)(交)(易)(所)(,80年)(代)(后)(期)(有)(个)(别)(证)(券)(营)(业)(部)(试)(点)(开)(展)(了)(证)(券)(交)(易)(。
  20世)(纪)(90年)(代)(上)(半)(期)(和)(中)(期)(:建)(立)(符)(合)(市)(场)(经)(济)(需)(要)(的)(金)(融)(机)(构)(和)(金)(融)(市)(场)(基)(本)(框)(架)(
  20世)(纪)(90年)(代)(上)(半)(期)(和)(中)(期)(,金)(融)(改)(革)(发)(展)(以)(党)(的)(十)(四)(大)(和)(十)(四)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(为)(根)(据)(,与)(国)(家)(开)(始)(建)(立)(社)(会)(主)(义)(市)(场)(经)(济)(基)(本)(框)(架)(相)(平)(行)(,主)(要)(特)(征)(就)(是)(建)(立)(符)(合)(市)(场)(经)(济)(的)(金)(融)(市)(场)(和)(组)(织)(结)(构)(的)(基)(本)(框)(架)(。
  首)(先)(是)(专)(业)(银)(行)(转)(向)(商)(业)(银)(行)(。当)(时)(,工)(商)(银)(行)(、农)(业)(银)(行)(、中)(国)(银)(行)(、建)(设)(银)(行)(四)(大)(国)(有)(银)(行)(和)(交)(通)(银)(行)(都)(已)(经)(成)(立)(了)(,但)(四)(大)(行)(还)(是)(专)(业)(银)(行)(,分)(别)(服)(务)(于)(工)(商)(业)(、农)(业)(、国)(际)(业)(务)(和)(项)(目)(建)(设)(等)(行)(业)(或)(领)(域)(,相)(互)(之)(间)(没)(有)(充)(分)(的)(竞)(争)(。这)(显)(然)(不)(符)(合)(竞)(争)(性)(市)(场)(经)(济)(的)(基)(本)(特)(征)(,同)(时)(也)(难)(以)(进)(行)(调)(控)(。并)(且)(,如)(果)(国)(家)(在)(某)(一)(领)(域)(有)(政)(策)(性)(要)(求)(,如)(有)(企)(业)(发)(不)(出)(工)(资)(,国)(家)(要)(求)(给)(予)(支)(持)(,那)(么)(四)(大)(行)(也)(必)(须)(负)(责)(自)(己)(领)(域)(的)(政)(策)(性)(业)(务)(。这)(不)(仅)(不)(利)(于)(银)(行)(业)(的)(发)(展)(,也)(不)(利)(于)(社)(会)(主)(义)(市)(场)(经)(济)(下)(市)(场)(主)(体)(的)(健)(康)(发)(展)(。基)(于)(这)(种)(考)(虑)(,1993年)(党)(的)(十)(四)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(决)(定)(成)(立)(三)(家)(政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(,即)(国)(家)(开)(发)(银)(行)(、中)(国)(进)(出)(口)(银)(行)(、中)(国)(农)(业)(发)(展)(银)(行)(,专)(门)(承)(担)(政)(策)(性)(服)(务)(,四)(大)(行)(只)(承)(担)(商)(业)(性)(业)(务)(,同)(时)(四)(大)(行)(不)(再)(按)(专)(业)(领)(域)(划)(分)(业)(务)(,相)(互)(之)(间)(可)(以)(交)(叉)(、竞)(争)(,以)(便)(改)(进)(服)(务)(。
  专)(业)(银)(行)(向)(商)(业)(银)(行)(转)(变)(的)(另)(一)(重)(要)(背)(景)(是)(,党)(的)(十)(四)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(提)(出)(国)(有)(企)(业)(要)(建)(立)(现)(代)(企)(业)(制)(度)(,即)(建)(立)(以)(产)(权)(明)(晰)(、权)(责)(明)(确)(、政)(企)(分)(开)(、管)(理)(科)(学)(为)(基)(本)(特)(征)(的)(公)(司)(组)(织)(结)(构)(和)(初)(步)(的)(治)(理)(框)(架)(。当)(时)(就)(有)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,如)(果)(现)(代)(企)(业)(制)(度)(也)(适)(用)(于)(这)(些)(大)(型)(国)(有)(银)(行)(,那)(么)(这)(些)(专)(业)(银)(行)(也)(要)(像)(国)(有)(企)(业)(改)(革)(一)(样)(,按)(照)(现)(代)(企)(业)(制)(度)(改)(变)(专)(业)(银)(行)(的)(性)(质)(,变)(为)(市)(场)(竞)(争)(主)(体)(,并)(按)(照)(现)(代)(企)(业)(制)(度)(来)(运)(营)(管)(理)(。
  其)(次)(,这)(一)(时)(期)(建)(立)(了)(证)(券)(市)(场)(。1990年)(底)(,上)(海)(证)(券)(交)(易)(所)(和)(深)(圳)(证)(券)(交)(易)(所)(正)(式)(建)(立)(,国)(家)(层)(面)(成)(立)(了)(证)(券)(委)(和)(证)(监)(会)(,后)(来)(证)(券)(委)(的)(发)(行)(审)(核)(功)(能)(合)(并)(进)(了)(证)(监)(会)(。
  再)(次)(,保)(险)(业)(取)(得)(较)(快)(发)(展)(,特)(别)(是)(寿)(险)(开)(始)(初)(步)(发)(展)(。1998年)(,专)(门)(成)(立)(了)(中)(国)(保)(险)(业)(监)(督)(管)(理)(委)(员)(会)(。
  最)(后)(,在)(金)(融)(机)(构)(和)(金)(融)(市)(场)(改)(革)(发)(展)(的)(基)(础)(上)(,建)(立)(了)(新)(的)(宏)(观)(调)(控)(框)(架)(,明)(确)(了)(当)(时)(国)(家)(计)(委)(、财)(政)(政)(策)(、货)(币)(政)(策)(的)(各)(自)(功)(能)(,宏)(观)(调)(控)(从)(直)(接)(调)(控)(加)(快)(转)(向)(间)(接)(调)(控)(。
  亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(期)(间)(:整)(顿)(与)(应)(对)(冲)(击)(
  泰)(国)(在)(1997年)(上)(半)(年)(就)(开)(始)(出)(现)(问)(题)(,到)(下)(半)(年)(金)(融)(危)(机)(迹)(象)(就)(比)(较)(明)(显)(了)(。亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(对)(中)(国)(造)(成)(的)(影)(响)(持)(续)(了)(4~5年)(的)(时)(间)(。亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(期)(间)(,中)(国)(金)(融)(领)(域)(的)(一)(项)(重)(要)(任)(务)(是)(进)(行)(金)(融)(整)(顿)(。当)(时)(处)(于)(建)(立)(社)(会)(主)(义)(市)(场)(经)(济)(体)(制)(的)(早)(期)(,金)(融)(领)(域)(有)(很)(多)(混)(乱)(的)(情)(况)(。特)(别)(是)(,由)(于)(会)(计)(标)(准)(没)(有)(建)(立)(,商)(业)(银)(行)(贷)(款)(分)(类)(方)(法)(不)(科)(学)(,财)(务)(纪)(律)(不)(规)(范)(,资)(本)(金)(也)(不)(充)(足)(,使)(得)(在)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(影)(响)(下)(,相)(当)(一)(部)(分)(金)(融)(机)(构)(经)(营)(不)(下)(去)(,甚)(至)(关)(闭)(破)(产)(,广)(国)(投)(事)(件)(是)(最)(重)(要)(的)(案)(例)(。
  另)(外)(,为)(应)(对)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(冲)(击)(,我)(国)(调)(整)(了)(金)(融)(体)(系)(的)(结)(构)(。就)(整)(个)(经)(济)(体)(制)(改)(革)(而)(言)(,需)(要)(在)(适)(当)(分)(权)(的)(基)(础)(上)(,建)(立)(中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(之)(间)(的)(合)(理)(关)(系)(,但)(是)(在)(金)(融)(调)(控)(方)(面)(,还)(是)(需)(要)(进)(行)(垂)(直)(管)(理)(。因)(此)(,1997年)(的)(全)(国)(金)(融)(工)(作)(会)(议)(对)(金)(融)(体)(系)(的)(组)(织)(结)(构)(做)(了)(调)(整)(。
  再)(有)(,金)(融)(业)(配)(合)(国)(家)(对)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(造)(成)(的)(重)(大)(冲)(击)(进)(行)(恢)(复)(。为)(应)(对)(危)(机)(冲)(击)(,当)(时)(推)(出)(了)(以)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(为)(主)(的)(经)(济)(刺)(激)(计)(划)(,财)(政)(和)(金)(融)(部)(门)(都)(要)(配)(合)(这)(方)(面)(工)(作)(。这)(一)(阶)(段)(最)(重)(要)(的)(任)(务)(是)(国)(有)(企)(业)(脱)(困)(。受)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(影)(响)(,国)(有)(企)(业)(困)(难)(比)(较)(明)(显)(,因)(此)(国)(家)(推)(出)(国)(有)(企)(业)(“三)(年)(脱)(困)(”计)(划)(。其)(实)(,当)(时)(银)(行)(业)(也)(相)(当)(困)(难)(,不)(良)(资)(产)(大)(概)(在)(25%~45%,损)(失)(也)(很)(大)(。但)(国)(有)(企)(业)(涉)(及)(更)(多)(人)(就)(业)(,问)(题)(更)(加)(紧)(迫)(。因)(此)(,国)(家)(通)(过)(债)(转)(股)(减)(轻)(国)(有)(企)(业)(债)(务)(负)(担)(,成)(立)(四)(家)(资)(产)(管)(理)(公)(司)(剥)(离)(大)(型)(银)(行)(不)(良)(资)(产)(,帮)(助)(国)(有)(企)(业)(休)(养)(生)(息)(,走)(出)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(带)(来)(的)(大)(量)(下)(岗)(和)(效)(益)(下)(滑)(的)(困)(境)(。这)(些)(措)(施)(实)(际)(上)(是)(由)(金)(融)(系)(统)(先)(承)(担)(更)(大)(的)(损)(失)(,等)(国)(有)(企)(业)(状)(况)(好)(转)(后)(,金)(融)(业)(还)(得)(回)(头)(再)(来)(收)(拾)(遗)(留)(下)(来)(的)(财)(务)(问)(题)(。
  2002~2008年)(的)(金)(融)(改)(革)(与)(发)(展)(:健)(康)(化)(、规)(范)(化)(和)(专)(业)(化)(
  从)(2002年)(下)(半)(年)(左)(右)(、走)(出)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(影)(响)(开)(始)(,中)(国)(金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(进)(入)(了)(一)(个)(新)(的)(阶)(段)(。个)(人)(认)(为)(,这)(个)(阶)(段)(金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(的)(主)(要)(内)(容)(可)(归)(纳)(为)(健)(康)(化)(、规)(范)(化)(和)(专)(业)(化)(。
  关)(于)(健)(康)(化)(和)(规)(范)(化)(。很)(多)(改)(革)(既)(是)(健)(康)(化)(,同)(时)(也)(是)(规)(范)(化)(。在)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(影)(响)(下)(,银)(行)(体)(系)(积)(累)(了)(很)(多)(问)(题)(,不)(良)(资)(产)(很)(多)(,资)(本)(金)(严)(重)(不)(足)(。证)(券)(市)(场)(起)(伏)(不)(定)(,总)(体)(来)(看)(上)(市)(公)(司)(质)(量)(比)(较)(差)(,发)(行)(和)(交)(易)(秩)(序)(也)(比)(较)(混)(乱)(。保)(险)(公)(司)(主)(要)(是)(寿)(险)(公)(司)(处)(于)(大)(面)(积)(利)(差)(损)(,即)(当)(通)(货)(膨)(胀)(高)(、利)(率)(高)(的)(时)(候)(,保)(险)(产)(品)(参)(考)(银)(行)(利)(率)(承)(诺)(的)(固)(化)(收)(益)(率)(很)(高)(,而)(当)(通)(货)(膨)(胀)(降)(低)(、利)(率)(下)(调)(后)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(资)(金)(运)(用)(的)(实)(际)(收)(益)(率)(较)(低)(,就)(会)(出)(现)(巨)(大)(的)(利)(差)(损)(。因)(此)(,保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(财)(务)(状)(况)(也)(非)(常)(不)(健)(康)(。
  亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(之)(后)(,就)(需)(要)(对)(金)(融)(机)(构)(特)(别)(是)(有)(影)(响)(的)(大)(型)(金)(融)(机)(构)(进)(行)(财)(务)(重)(组)(,使)(其)(恢)(复)(到)(健)(康)(状)(态)(。要)(进)(行)(财)(务)(重)(组)(,就)(需)(要)(弄)(清)(资)(产)(质)(量)(,其)(中)(首)(要)(的)(是)(改)(革)(会)(计)(准)(则)(。银)(行)(财)(务)(状)(况)(对)(会)(计)(制)(度)(非)(常)(敏)(感)(,资)(产)(负)(债)(表)(健)(康)(与)(否)(,很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(取)(决)(于)(所)(使)(用)(的)(会)(计)(制)(度)(。之)(前)(虽)(然)(对)(计)(划)(经)(济)(时)(代)(的)(会)(计)(制)(度)(有)(所)(改)(动)(,但)(是)(不)(够)(彻)(底)(。当)(时)(资)(产)(损)(失)(不)(能)(减)(计)(和)(计)(提)(,比)(如)(库)(存)(损)(失)(了)(或)(者)(某)(个)(投)(资)(项)(目)(损)(失)(了)(,都)(不)(能)(计)(提)(。这)(样)(,银)(行)(对)(企)(业)(贷)(款)(质)(量)(衡)(量)(和)(对)(不)(良)(资)(产)(的)(计)(算)(就)(是)(不)(真)(实)(的)(。上)(市)(公)(司)(也)(是)(如)(此)(。上)(市)(公)(司)(会)(公)(告)(盈)(利)(状)(况)(,但)(因)(为)(损)(失)(没)(有)(充)(分)(计)(提)(,数)(据)(是)(不)(真)(实)(的)(,对)(资)(本)(市)(场)(也)(会)(造)(成)(不)(良)(影)(响)(。2001年)(、2002年)(前)(后)(,我)(国)(对)(会)(计)(准)(则)(进)(行)(了)(改)(进)(。这)(是)(非)(常)(实)(质)(性)(、基)(础)(性)(的)(工)(作)(。
  对)(银)(行)(来)(说)(,过)(去)(贷)(款)(分)(类)(很)(不)(合)(理)(,大)(量)(不)(良)(资)(产)(被)(掩)(盖)(,通)(过)(实)(行)(贷)(款)(五)(级)(分)(类)(制)(度)(,就)(可)(以)(弄)(清)(楚)(银)(行)(不)(良)(资)(产)(的)(真)(实)(情)(况)(,做)(到)(摸)(清)(家)(底)(。在)(弄)(清)(不)(良)(贷)(款)(的)(基)(础)(上)(,就)(可)(以)(明)(确)(哪)(些)(不)(良)(资)(产)(需)(要)(剥)(离)(,银)(行)(需)(要)(补)(充)(多)(少)(新)(的)(资)(本)(。然)(后)(,国)(家)(就)(要)(想)(办)(法)(注)(资)(。当)(年)(的)(做)(法)(是)(财)(政)(和)(金)(融)(体)(系)(拿)(出)(一)(部)(分)(资)(源)(进)(行)(注)(资)(,包)(括)(外)(汇)(储)(备)(和)(黄)(金)(储)(备)(,来)(改)(进)(大)(型)(银)(行)(和)(保)(险)(公)(司)(的)(资)(本)(状)(况)(,随)(后)(也)(改)(进)(了)(一)(部)(分)(证)(券)(公)(司)(的)(资)(本)(状)(况)(,使)(这)(些)(金)(融)(机)(构)(基)(本)(合)(格)(。
  金)(融)(机)(构)(财)(务)(状)(况)(基)(本)(合)(格)(后)(,要)(想)(跟)(上)(国)(民)(经)(济)(迅)(速)(发)(展)(的)(需)(要)(,还)(需)(要)(不)(断)(增)(强)(资)(本)(。因)(此)(,大)(多)(数)(效)(益)(比)(较)(好)(的)(银)(行)(、保)(险)(公)(司)(、证)(券)(公)(司)(逐)(步)(发)(行)(上)(市)(,变)(成)(上)(市)(公)(司)(。上)(市)(除)(了)(可)(以)(筹)(集)(资)(本)(外)(,更)(重)(要)(的)(是)(,要)(按)(照)(现)(代)(企)(业)(制)(度)(建)(立)(公)(司)(治)(理)(结)(构)(,同)(时)(提)(升)(透)(明)(度)(,金)(融)(机)(构)(要)(受)(到)(来)(自)(广)(大)(投)(资)(者)(特)(别)(是)(股)(票)(市)(场)(投)(资)(者)(和)(战)(略)(投)(资)(者)(的)(压)(力)(和)(监)(督)(约)(束)(,从)(而)(有)(足)(够)(的)(动)(力)(加)(强)(财)(务)(和)(风)(险)(管)(理)(。
  在)(此)(期)(间)(,另)(一)(项)(重)(要)(的)(金)(融)(改)(革)(是)(农)(村)(信)(用)(社)(改)(革)(。农)(村)(信)(用)(社)(资)(产)(大)(概)(占)(到)(了)(金)(融)(系)(统)(总)(量)(的)(10%左)(右)(,当)(时)(不)(良)(资)(产)(占)(比)(在)(50%左)(右)(,也)(非)(常)(高)(。农)(村)(信)(用)(社)(改)(革)(采)(用)(了)(与)(前)(述)(大)(型)(国)(有)(银)(行)(类)(似)(的)(办)(法)(。同)(时)(,农)(村)(信)(用)(社)(比)(较)(分)(散)(,情)(况)(参)(差)(不)(齐)(,所)(以)(当)(时)(改)(革)(设)(计)(了)(正)(向)(激)(励)(机)(制)(,调)(动)(各)(方)(面)(积)(极)(性)(,鼓)(励)(做)(得)(好)(的)(,约)(束)(做)(得)(差)(的)(。
  在)(抓)(好)(大)(型)(金)(融)(机)(构)(和)(农)(村)(信)(用)(社)(改)(革)(的)(同)(时)(,运)(用)(同)(样)(的)(思)(路)(,但)(以)(财)(务)(损)(失)(自)(担)(为)(原)(则)(推)(进)(中)(等)(金)(融)(机)(构)(,包)(括)(中)(等)(商)(业)(银)(行)(和)(城)(市)(商)(业)(银)(行)(的)(改)(革)(。改)(革)(之)(后)(,相)(当)(一)(部)(分)(好)(的)(金)(融)(机)(构)(也)(都)(成)(为)(上)(市)(公)(司)(。
  这)(个)(阶)(段)(,股)(票)(市)(场)(也)(大)(力)(推)(进)(了)(规)(范)(化)(。中)(国)(股)(票)(市)(场)(长)(期)(存)(在)(股)(权)(分)(置)(,上)(市)(国)(企)(的)(股)(票)(分)(国)(有)(股)(和)(流)(通)(股)(,国)(有)(股)(有)(一)(部)(分)(叫)(法)(人)(股)(,法)(人)(股)(不)(能)(在)(市)(场)(上)(流)(通)(,形)(成)(了)(双)(轨)(制)(。股)(权)(分)(置)(是)(改)(革)(转)(轨)(期)(间)(中)(国)(特)(有)(的)(一)(种)(现)(象)(,很)(不)(规)(范)(,影)(响)(了)(投)(资)(者)(信)(心)(和)(股)(票)(市)(场)(的)(进)(一)(步)(发)(展)(。2005年)(,国)(家)(下)(决)(心)(推)(动)(股)(权)(分)(置)(改)(革)(,解)(决)(了)(这)(一)(不)(规)(范)(问)(题)(。
  由)(此)(可)(见)(,这)(个)(过)(程)(覆)(盖)(了)(各)(类)(金)(融)(机)(构)(,包)(括)(银)(行)(、证)(券)(和)(保)(险)(机)(构)(,以)(及)(大)(型)(、中)(型)(和)(小)(型)(等)(不)(同)(层)(次)(。同)(样)(的)(改)(革)(逻)(辑)(关)(系)(和)(原)(则)(,使)(得)(不)(同)(领)(域)(和)(不)(同)(层)(次)(金)(融)(机)(构)(的)(改)(革)(之)(间)(存)(在)(必)(然)(联)(系)(。这)(些)(改)(革)(为)(我)(国)(金)(融)(体)(系)(成)(功)(应)(对)(2008年)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(打)(下)(了)(基)(础)(。
  关)(于)(专)(业)(化)(。专)(业)(化)(主)(要)(是)(指)(金)(融)(业)(更)(深)(入)(地)(依)(据)(市)(场)(经)(济)(的)(规)(律)(去)(运)(作)(,同)(时)(金)(融)(监)(管)(也)(进)(一)(步)(走)(向)(专)(业)(化)(。2003年)(中)(国)(银)(监)(会)(从)(人)(民)(银)(行)(分)(设)(,明)(确)(了)(银)(监)(会)(、证)(监)(会)(、保)(监)(会)(三)(家)(专)(业)(性)(监)(管)(机)(构)(的)(目)(标)(责)(任)(,理)(清)(了)(金)(融)(监)(管)(和)(宏)(观)(调)(控)(的)(责)(任)(关)(系)(。同)(时)(,金)(融)(监)(管)(部)(门)(集)(中)(了)(人)(才)(,监)(管)(工)(作)(水)(平)(有)(了)(显)(著)(提)(高)(。
  应)(对)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(:跟)(上)(全)(球)(金)(融)(治)(理)(体)(系)(改)(革)(步)(伐)(
  上)(述)(健)(康)(化)(、规)(范)(化)(和)(专)(业)(化)(的)(阶)(段)(还)(没)(有)(完)(全)(走)(完)(,随)(着)(2008年)(9月)(份)(雷)(曼)(兄)(弟)(破)(产)(倒)(闭)(引)(发)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(,中)(国)(的)(金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(也)(进)(入)(了)(一)(个)(新)(的)(阶)(段)(。这)(个)(阶)(段)(金)(融)(领)(域)(的)(主)(要)(工)(作)(是)(配)(合)(国)(家)(应)(对)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(冲)(击)(,特)(别)(是)(配)(合)(2008年)(11月)(份)(推)(出)(的)(一)(揽)(子)(经)(济)(刺)(激)(计)(划)(,这)(在)(宏)(观)(政)(策)(和)(一)(些)(结)(构)(性)(的)(金)(融)(支)(持)(政)(策)(方)(面)(均)(有)(体)(现)(。
  这)(段)(时)(期)(国)(际)(金)(融)(领)(域)(改)(革)(的)(一)(项)(重)(要)(内)(容)(,是)(针)(对)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(给)(宏)(观)(调)(控)(和)(金)(融)(体)(系)(提)(出)(的)(重)(大)(挑)(战)(,在)(金)(融)(领)(域)(作)(出)(大)(量)(纠)(正)(和)(显)(著)(改)(进)(。主)(要)(包)(括)(:对)(于)(导)(致)(金)(融)(危)(机)(发)(生)(的)(问)(题)(,比)(如)(资)(本)(不)(充)(足)(、杠)(杆)(率)(过)(高)(、衍)(生)(产)(品)(市)(场)(混)(乱)((危)(机)(前)(,美)(国)(的)(金)(融)(衍)(生)(产)(品)(市)(场)(过)(于)(复)(杂)(庞)(大)(,很)(多)(情)(况)(美)(国)(监)(管)(当)(局)(都)(搞)(不)(清)(楚)()等)(加)(以)(纠)(正)(,对)(相)(关)(市)(场)(进)(行)(改)(造)(,特)(别)(是)(加)(强)(了)(对)(金)(融)(体)(系)(中)(交)(易)(部)(门)(杠)(杆)(率)(的)(监)(管)(,增)(加)(金)(融)(稳)(定)(措)(施)(,对)(清)(算)(系)(统)(采)(取)(交)(易)(对)(手)(方)(集)(中)(清)(算)(。其)(中)(一)(个)(重)(要)(的)(内)(容)(是)(建)(立)(健)(全)(宏)(观)(审)(慎)(管)(理)(框)(架)(。全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(暴)(露)(出)(金)(融)(体)(系)(存)(在)(非)(常)(明)(显)(的)(顺)(周)(期)(性)(,即)(经)(济)(状)(况)(好)(的)(时)(候)(,大)(家)(都)(觉)(得)(好)(,评)(级)(评)(得)(好)(,股)(票)(价)(格)(高)(,借)(贷)(杠)(杆)(率)(也)(高)(;一)(旦)(出)(现)(危)(机)(,上)(述)(各)(环)(节)(就)(都)(会)(出)(现)(收)(紧)(,“落)(井)(下)(石)(”。顺)(周)(期)(因)(素)(加)(大)(了)(经)(济)(金)(融)(的)(波)(动)(性)(和)(危)(机)(程)(度)(。为)(此)(,需)(要)(在)(金)(融)(系)(统)(中)(引)(进)(一)(些)(逆)(周)(期)(的)(因)(素)(,经)(济)(好)(的)(时)(候)(让)(它)(冷)(一)(冷)(,差)(的)(时)(候)(能)(够)(扶)(一)(扶)(。这)(些)(措)(施)(在)(大)(的)(概)(念)(上)(被)(命)(名)(为)(“宏)(观)(审)(慎)(政)(策)(框)(架)(”。该)(提)(法)(在)(国)(际)(上)(被)(写)(入)(了)(G20文)(件)(,在)(国)(内)(被)(写)(进)(了)(党)(的)(十)(八)(大)(、十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(的)(文)(件)(,也)(连)(续)(几)(年)(写)(进)(了)(政)(府)(工)(作)(报)(告)(。
  总)(之)(,国)(际)(金)(融)(领)(域)(推)(出)(了)(很)(多)(改)(革)(,这)(些)(改)(革)(对)(我)(们)(有)(很)(好)(的)(借)(鉴)(和)(启)(示)(意)(义)(。一)(是)(对)(于)(国)(际)(上)(出)(现)(的)(经)(验)(教)(训)(,有)(些)(我)(们)(也)(是)(深)(有)(体)(会)(的)(。中)(国)(在)(2008年)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(之)(前)(,经)(济)(金)(融)(领)(域)(存)(在)(很)(多)(问)(题)(,2008年)(底)(、2009年)(初)(经)(济)(同)(样)(出)(现)(急)(剧)(下)(滑)(,只)(是)(我)(们)(的)(问)(题)(没)(有)(美)(国)(、欧)(洲)(那)(么)(大)(,所)(以)(下)(滑)(得)(没)(那)(么)(狠)(。二)(是)(有)(些)(属)(于)(发)(达)(金)(融)(市)(场)(的)(问)(题)(我)(们)(还)(没)(有)(遇)(到)(,但)(是)(我)(们)(通)(过)(学)(习)(和)(反)(思)(,未)(雨)(绸)(缪)(,可)(以)(把)(国)(际)(上)(反)(思)(经)(验)(教)(训)(所)(建)(立)(的)(新)(规)(则)(、秩)(序)(、标)(准)(、监)(管)(学)(过)(来)(。这)(对)(我)(们)(防)(止)(今)(后)(犯)(同)(样)(的)(错)(误)(是)(有)(好)(处)(的)(。
  当)(前)(阶)(段)(的)(金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(:市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(和)(多)(元)(化)(
  全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(后)(期)(,我)(们)(按)(照)(党)(的)(十)(八)(大)(和)(十)(八)(届)(二)(中)(、三)(中)(、四)(中)(全)(会)(精)(神)(,全)(面)(深)(化)(改)(革)(开)(放)(,着)(力)(推)(动)(金)(融)(业)(市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(、多)(元)(化)(。
  市)(场)(化)(
  党)(的)(十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(明)(确)(提)(出)(,让)(市)(场)(在)(资)(源)(配)(置)(中)(起)(决)(定)(性)(作)(用)(。经)(济)(学)(术)(语)(中)(的)(资)(源)(是)(指)(生)(产)(要)(素)(,主)(要)(包)(括)(劳)(动)(力)(、资)(本)(、土)(地)(,此)(外)(,有)(时)(也)(可)(以)(扩)(大)(到)(能)(源)(品)(等)(。总)(之)(,所)(谓)(资)(源)(的)(优)(化)(配)(置)(是)(生)(产)(要)(素)(的)(配)(置)(。显)(然)(,资)(金)(包)(括)(外)(汇)(资)(金)(如)(何)(配)(置)(,是)(让)(市)(场)(在)(资)(源)(配)(置)(中)(起)(决)(定)(性)(作)(用)(的)(一)(个)(非)(常)(重)(要)(的)(内)(容)(,要)(达)(到)(这)(一)(目)(标)(,就)(要)(实)(现)(资)(金)(价)(格)(即)(利)(率)(和)(汇)(率)(的)(市)(场)(化)(。这)(是)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(的)(两)(个)(重)(要)(内)(容)(。
  关)(于)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(。实)(现)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(是)(一)(个)(过)(程)(,之)(前)(已)(经)(完)(成)(了)(一)(些)(步)(骤)(。2004年)(开)(始)(推)(动)(贷)(款)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(。当)(时)(推)(进)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(有)(一)(个)(总)(体)(思)(路)(,即)(先)(贷)(款)(后)(存)(款)(、先)(大)(额)(后)(小)(额)(,先)(外)(币)(后)(本)(币)(。后)(来)(,沿)(此)(思)(路)(迈)(出)(了)(若)(干)(步)(改)(革)(,随)(后)(就)(碰)(到)(了)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(,金)(融)(工)(作)(的)(主)(要)(精)(力)(暂)(不)(在)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(方)(面)(了)(。金)(融)(危)(机)(之)(后)(,我)(们)(开)(始)(加)(快)(推)(进)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(。通)(过)(这)(几)(年)(的)(改)(革)(,贷)(款)(利)(率)(已)(经)(完)(全)(放)(开)(,金)(融)(市)(场)(上)(的)(其)(他)(利)(率)(,如)(债)(券)(、拆)(借)(和)(票)(据)(的)(利)(率)(,以)(前)(都)(已)(完)(全)(放)(开)(,目)(前)(只)(对)(存)(款)(利)(率)(保)(持)(50%的)(浮)(动)(上)(限)(管)(理)(。很)(多)(人)(认)(为)(,存)(款)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(是)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(的)(最)(后)(一)(步)(。其)(实)(,这)(最)(后)(一)(步)(我)(们)(是)(分)(若)(干)(小)(步)(迈)(出)(来)(的)(,在)(过)(去)(的)(两)(年)(中)(,存)(款)(利)(率)(浮)(动)(上)(限)(先)(从)(10%提)(高)(到)(20%,然)(后)(再)(提)(高)(到)(30%和)(现)(在)(的)(50%,已)(经)(走)(了)(四)(步)(。我)(估)(计)(50%之)(后)(,步)(伐)(可)(以)(加)(大)(,加)(快)(实)(现)(市)(场)(化)(。
  关)(于)(汇)(率)(市)(场)(化)(。我)(国)(汇)(率)(市)(场)(化)(也)(走)(过)(了)(较)(长)(阶)(段)(。早)(在)(1993年)(底)(,我)(们)(就)(进)(行)(了)(双)(轨)(合)(一)(的)(外)(汇)(体)(制)(改)(革)(,1996年)(中)(国)(宣)(布)(经)(常)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(,并)(开)(始)(酝)(酿)(逐)(步)(实)(现)(资)(本)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(,但)(当)(时)(条)(件)(还)(不)(成)(熟)(,随)(后)(就)(遇)(到)(了)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(,汇)(率)(体)(制)(改)(革)(一)(度)(放)(缓)(。党)(的)(十)(六)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(确)(定)(了)(人)(民)(币)(汇)(率)(体)(制)(改)(革)(的)(总)(体)(目)(标)(,即)(建)(立)(健)(全)(以)(市)(场)(供)(求)(为)(基)(础)(的)(、有)(管)(理)(的)(浮)(动)(汇)(率)(制)(度)(,使)(人)(民)(币)(汇)(率)(在)(合)(理)(均)(衡)(水)(平)(上)(保)(持)(基)(本)(稳)(定)(。按)(照)(这)(一)(要)(求)(,2005年)(推)(进)(了)(汇)(率)(体)(制)(改)(革)(,开)(始)(实)(行)(以)(市)(场)(供)(求)(为)(基)(础)(、参)(考)(一)(篮)(子)(货)(币)(进)(行)(调)(节)(、有)(管)(理)(的)(浮)(动)(汇)(率)(制)(度)(。经)(过)(2007年)(、2012年)(和)(2014年)(三)(次)(调)(整)(,人)(民)(币)(兑)(美)(元)(交)(易)(价)(每)(天)(浮)(动)(幅)(度)(由)(3‰逐)(步)(扩)(大)(至)(2%,同)(时)(人)(民)(银)(行)(逐)(步)(退)(出)(常)(态)(化)(的)(外)(汇)(干)(预)(。新)(的)(汇)(率)(体)(制)(要)(求)(人)(民)(币)(汇)(率)(更)(充)(分)(地)(反)(映)(经)(济)(基)(本)(面)(,其)(中)(一)(个)(重)(要)(内)(容)(就)(是)(要)(反)(映)(国)(际)(经)(常)(项)(目)(收)(支)(的)(平)(衡)(情)(况)(,即)(汇)(率)(主)(要)(由)(外)(汇)(市)(场)(的)(供)(求)(关)(系)(决)(定)(。经)(常)(项)(目)(收)(支)(共)(有)(四)(项)(构)(成)(,包)(括)(货)(物)(贸)(易)(和)(服)(务)(贸)(易)(两)(个)(大)(项)(,以)(及)(投)(资)(收)(入)(和)(转)(移)(款)(项)(两)(个)(小)(项)(。
  国)(际)(化)(
  在)(多)(年)(的)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(基)(础)(上)(,金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(就)(可)(以)(加)(大)(国)(际)(化)(的)(步)(伐)(,以)(前)(是)(不)(具)(备)(这)(个)(条)(件)(的)(。最)(近)(几)(年)(,国)(际)(化)(进)(展)(较)(快)(。一)(个)(重)(要)(工)(作)(是)(在)(2014年)(推)(出)(了)(沪)(港)(通)(,实)(现)(了)(上)(海)(证)(券)(交)(易)(所)(和)(香)(港)(联)(交)(所)(的)(互)(联)(互)(通)(。国)(际)(化)(的)(另)(一)(重)(要)(领)(域)(是)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(势)(头)(加)(快)(、人)(民)(币)(资)(本)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(加)(快)(推)(进)(、人)(民)(币)(离)(岸)(市)(场)(建)(设)(得)(到)(加)(强)(以)(及)(金)(融)(支)(持)(企)(业)(“走)(出)(去)(”的)(步)(伐)(加)(快)(,包)(括)(当)(前)(已)(经)(运)(行)(的)(丝)(路)(基)(金)(和)(正)(在)(筹)(备)(的)(亚)(洲)(基)(础)(设)(施)(投)(资)(银)(行)(,也)(包)(括)(正)(在)(热)(议)(中)(的)(人)(民)(币)(能)(否)(加)(入)(国)(际)(货)(币)(基)(金)(组)(织)(的)(特)(别)(提)(款)(权)((SDR),从)(而)(成)(为)(国)(际)(主)(要)(储)(备)(货)(币)(之)(一)(等)(热)(点)(议)(题)(。
  关)(于)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(。应)(该)(说)(,人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(起)(步)(比)(人)(民)(银)(行)(、金)(融)(管)(理)(部)(门)(包)(括)(外)(汇)(局)(设)(想)(得)(要)(早)(,国)(际)(社)(会)(对)(人)(民)(币)(的)(欢)(迎)(程)(度)(也)(超)(过)(我)(们)(当)(时)(的)(预)(期)(。人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(之)(所)(以)(比)(较)(顺)(利)(,主)(要)(是)(因)(为)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(期)(间)(西)(方)(国)(家)(金)(融)(市)(场)(一)(度)(非)(常)(疲)(弱)(,加)(之)(由)(于)(金)(融)(危)(机)(导)(致)(的)(货)(币)(不)(稳)(定)(,市)(场)(上)(缺)(乏)(美)(元)(,且)(对)(美)(元)(信)(心)(不)(足)(,欧)(洲)(主)(权)(债)(务)(危)(机)(导)(致)(欧)(元)(振)(荡)(也)(较)(大)(,日)(本)(经)(济)(也)(不)(太)(好)(,也)(影)(响)(了)(日)(元)(。总)(之)(,全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(对)(主)(要)(国)(际)(货)(币)(都)(造)(成)(了)(负)(面)(影)(响)(,人)(民)(币)(就)(受)(到)(了)(欢)(迎)(。首)(先)(是)(韩)(国)(出)(于)(稳)(定)(需)(要)(,主)(动)(要)(求)(和)(中)(国)(开)(展)(货)(币)(互)(换)(,随)(后)(陆)(续)(有)(二)(十)(多)(个)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(提)(出)(货)(币)(互)(换)(,甚)(至)(一)(些)(发)(达)(国)(家)(也)(加)(入)(进)(来)(,从)(2014年)(开)(始)(,中)(国)(分)(别)(与)(欧)(央)(行)(及)(英)(国)(、瑞)(士)(等)(国)(央)(行)(做)(了)(货)(币)(互)(换)(安)(排)(。因)(此)(,可)(以)(说)(是)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(的)(爆)(发)(,多)(少)(有)(点)(儿)(意)(外)(地)(把)(人)(民)(币)(推)(向)(国)(际)(社)(会)(了)(。
  我)(们)(对)(待)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(的)(态)(度)(,首)(先)(是)(顺)(水)(推)(舟)(,顺)(应)(市)(场)(需)(求)(。既)(然)(国)(际)(社)(会)(欢)(迎)(人)(民)(币)(,同)(时)(中)(国)(已)(经)(成)(为)(世)(界)(第)(二)(大)(经)(济)(体)(,通)(过)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(在)(国)(际)(市)(场)(上)(实)(现)(国)(际)(国)(内)(两)(种)(资)(源)(的)(优)(化)(配)(置)(,对)(中)(国)(也)(是)(有)(巨)(大)(好)(处)(的)(。因)(此)(,我)(们)(应)(该)(根)(据)(自)(身)(经)(济)(实)(力)(,顺)(应)(实)(体)(经)(济)(需)(求)(,推)(进)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(。其)(次)(,要)(真)(想)(做)(强)(人)(民)(币)(,使)(其)(符)(合)(市)(场)(预)(期)(站)(到)(那)(个)(位)(置)(的)(话)(,我)(们)(就)(要)(做)(好)(自)(己)(的)(家)(庭)(作)(业)(,继)(续)(推)(进)(经)(济)(金)(融)(改)(革)(、改)(变)(相)(关)(规)(则)(,不)(断)(采)(取)(措)(施)(,以)(适)(应)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(的)(需)(要)(。
  目)(前)(,与)(人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(相)(关)(的)(工)(作)(主)(要)(包)(括)(以)(下)(几)(项)(。
  一)(是)(中)(国)(和)(其)(他)(国)(家)(签)(订)(协)(议)(,在)(双)(边)(贸)(易)(投)(资)(中)(使)(用)(本)(币)(。比)(如)(中)(国)(和)(俄)(罗)(斯)(之)(间)(的)(经)(贸)(往)(来)(可)(以)(使)(用)(人)(民)(币)(,也)(可)(以)(使)(用)(卢)(布)(。
  二)(是)(双)(边)(央)(行)(之)(间)(开)(展)(本)(币)(互)(换)(。比)(如)(说)(,如)(果)(俄)(罗)(斯)(缺)(少)(人)(民)(币)(,或)(者)(中)(国)(缺)(少)(卢)(布)(,两)(国)(央)(行)(可)(以)(居)(中)(进)(行)(货)(币)(互)(换)(,由)(此)(人)(民)(币)(就)(出)(去)(了)(。
  三)(是)(指)(定)(人)(民)(币)(清)(算)(行)(。双)(边)(都)(使)(用)(人)(民)(币)(的)(时)(候)(,境)(外)(市)(场)(上)(人)(民)(币)(有)(时)(候)(多)(、有)(时)(候)(少)(,多)(的)(时)(候)(应)(该)(可)(以)(回)(流)(到)(境)(内)(,少)(的)(时)(候)(可)(以)(调)(剂)(出)(去)(,这)(个)(机)(制)(就)(需)(要)(由)(清)(算)(行)(来)(完)(成)(。理)(论)(上)(,也)(可)(以)(在)(中)(国)(设)(立)(卢)(布)(的)(清)(算)(行)(,但)(由)(于)(人)(民)(币)(更)(受)(欢)(迎)(,所)(以)(很)(多)(国)(家)(希)(望)(设)(立)(人)(民)(币)(清)(算)(行)(。同)(时)(,不)(仅)(是)(邻)(国)(或)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,近)(年)(的)(一)(个)(显)(著)(变)(化)(是)(,从)(英)(国)(开)(始)(一)(些)(西)(方)(国)(家)(也)(要)(求)(设)(立)(人)(民)(币)(清)(算)(行)(。
  四)(是)(有)(些)(国)(家)(开)(始)(主)(动)(宣)(布)(将)(人)(民)(币)(作)(为)(其)(外)(汇)(储)(备)(一)(部)(分)(。
  五)(是)(双)(边)(本)(币)(直)(接)(挂)(牌)(交)(易)(。人)(民)(币)(最)(早)(和)(马)(来)(西)(亚)(林)(吉)(特)(开)(展)(直)(接)(交)(易)(。在)(此)(之)(前)(,人)(民)(币)(与)(林)(吉)(特)(之)(间)(的)(交)(易)(一)(般)(是)(通)(过)(美)(元)(套)(算)(,人)(民)(币)(先)(换)(成)(美)(元)(,美)(元)(再)(换)(林)(吉)(特)(。这)(种)(套)(算)(方)(式)(有)(时)(受)(美)(元)(不)(稳)(定)(影)(响)(较)(大)(,同)(时)(差)(价)(也)(大)(,成)(本)(较)(高)(。通)(过)(与)(其)(他)(国)(家)(货)(币)(之)(间)(直)(接)(交)(易)(,双)(边)(货)(币)(就)(可)(以)(形)(成)(汇)(率)(,不)(经)(过)(其)(他)(货)(币)(套)(算)(,便)(利)(化)(程)(度)(更)(高)(。
  关)(于)(资)(本)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(。在)(国)(内)(金)(融)(改)(革)(发)(展)(顺)(利)(推)(进)(的)(基)(础)(上)(,人)(民)(币)(可)(以)(加)(快)(走)(向)(资)(本)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(。早)(在)(1996年)(,我)(国)(就)(宣)(布)(了)(经)(常)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(。在)(资)(本)(项)(目)(方)(面)(,过)(去)(只)(是)(外)(商)(直)(接)(投)(资)((FDI)可)(兑)(换)(,很)(多)(其)(他)(项)(目)(尚)(不)(可)(兑)(换)(,比)(如)(股)(票)(、债)(券)(、基)(金)(等)(投)(资)(项)(下)(的)(可)(兑)(换)(程)(度)(还)(不)(高)(。另)(外)(一)(个)(特)(点)(是)(,事)(前)(审)(批)(多)(。其)(实)(,很)(多)(资)(本)(项)(下)(也)(不)(是)(完)(全)(不)(可)(兑)(换)(,只)(是)(需)(要)(事)(前)(管)(理)(和)(审)(批)(,市)(场)(主)(体)(多)(数)(都)(能)(绕)(道)(而)(行)(。现)(在)(,很)(多)(事)(前)(管)(理)(的)(项)(目)(逐)(步)(放)(开)(了)(。但)(资)(本)(管)(制)(逐)(步)(放)(开)(不)(意)(味)(着)(放)(手)(不)(管)(,事)(中)(事)(后)(还)(是)(要)(管)(的)(,特)(别)(是)(有)(几)(项)(的)(管)(理)(还)(要)(加)(强)(,包)(括)(反)(洗)(钱)(、反)(恐)(融)(资)(和)(反)(过)(度)(利)(用)(“避)(税)(天)(堂)(”偷)(逃)(税)(等)(。此)(外)(,新)(兴)(和)(发)(展)(中)(经)(济)(体)(也)(可)(以)(采)(取)(一)(些)(防)(止)(短)(期)(资)(本)(过)(度)(投)(机)(的)(措)(施)(。如)(果)(是)(中)(长)(期)(投)(资)(,我)(们)(是)(欢)(迎)(的)(,但)(对)(于)(短)(期)(炒)(作)(资)(金)(,国)(际)(上)(允)(许)(设)(置)(一)(些)(管)(制)(措)(施)(。推)(进)(资)(本)(项)(目)(可)(兑)(换)(的)(这)(些)(基)(础)(性)(工)(作)(,对)(于)(在)(国)(际)(金)(融)(方)(面)(给)(予)(国)(内)(企)(业)(“走)(出)(去)(”更)(多)(支)(持)(,使)(其)(在)(海)(外)(更)(好)(发)(展)(,能)(起)(到)(重)(要)(推)(动)(作)(用)(。
  关)(于)(人)(民)(币)(加)(入)(特)(别)(提)(款)(权)((SDR)。简)(单)(来)(说)(,特)(别)(提)(款)(权)(是)(国)(际)(储)(备)(货)(币)(的)(一)(个)(篮)(子)(,目)(前)(这)(个)(篮)(子)(里)(包)(括)(美)(元)(、日)(元)(、欧)(元)(、英)(镑)(四)(种)(国)(际)(货)(币)(。国)(际)(货)(币)(基)(金)(每)(五)(年)(审)(议)(一)(次)(特)(别)(提)(款)(权)(。2015年)(是)(审)(查)(年)(,大)(家)(希)(望)(人)(民)(币)(可)(以)(加)(入)(这)(个)(货)(币)(篮)(子)(。这)(已)(成)(为)(国)(际)(社)(会)(关)(心)(的)(一)(个)(议)(题)(。人)(民)(币)(国)(际)(化)(近)(年)(的)(势)(头)(很)(好)(,国)(际)(货)(币)(基)(金)(正)(在)(认)(真)(考)(虑)(此)(事)(。
  多)(元)(化)(
  在)(转)(轨)(的)(早)(期)(,由)(于)(没)(有)(符)(合)(市)(场)(经)(济)(要)(求)(的)(基)(本)(组)(织)(架)(构)(,没)(有)(有)(效)(的)(宏)(观)(调)(控)(框)(架)(,金)(融)(体)(系)(必)(然)(是)(不)(健)(康)(的)(,没)(有)(实)(现)(规)(范)(化)(,也)(没)(有)(应)(对)(危)(机)(的)(经)(验)(和)(能)(力)(。只)(有)(完)(成)(健)(康)(化)(、规)(范)(化)(和)(专)(业)(化)(改)(造)(以)(后)(,转)(轨)(经)(济)(的)(金)(融)(体)(系)(才)(有)(条)(件)(更)(大)(程)(度)(地)(实)(现)(市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(,也)(才)(有)(胆)(量)(、有)(魄)(力)(、有)(底)(气)(实)(现)(多)(元)(化)(。设)(想)(一)(下)(,当)(金)(融)(体)(系)(很)(不)(健)(康)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,是)(不)(敢)(发)(展)(一)(些)(复)(杂)(衍)(生)(产)(品)(的)(。当)(前)(的)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(发)(展)(亦)(是)(如)(此)(。发)(展)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(必)(然)(会)(带)(来)(一)(些)(风)(险)(,如)(果)(金)(融)(体)(系)(基)(础)(不)(好)(,就)(难)(以)(承)(受)(这)(些)(风)(险)(,但)(如)(果)(基)(础)(打)(好)(了)(,就)(可)(以)(发)(展)(。最)(近)(一)(段)(时)(间)(,从)(国)(务)(院)(到)(中)(央)(都)(在)(研)(究)(鼓)(励)(和)(规)(范)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(发)(展)(的)(基)(本)(框)(架)(。与)(此)(相)(关)(的)(议)(题)(都)(反)(映)(了)(当)(前)(我)(国)(金)(融)(改)(革)(发)(展)(所)(处)(阶)(段)(的)(多)(元)(化)(特)(点)(。
  中)(国)(金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(的)(内)(在)(逻)(辑)(
  通)(过)(以)(上)(回)(顾)(不)(难)(看)(出)(,中)(国)(金)(融)(改)(革)(开)(放)(有)(着)(很)(强)(逻)(辑)(性)(:在)(转)(轨)(的)(早)(期)(,需)(要)(通)(过)(健)(康)(化)(、规)(范)(化)(和)(专)(业)(化)(等)(一)(系)(列)(深)(刻)(有)(力)(的)(调)(整)(,才)(能)(逐)(步)(迈)(向)(市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(、多)(元)(化)(的)(阶)(段)(。
  转)(轨)(经)(济)(必)(然)(面)(临)(类)(似)(的)(改)(革)(困)(难)(
  我)(们)(不)(妨)(比)(较)(一)(些)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(,特)(别)(是)(转)(轨)(国)(家)(,即)(从)(过)(去)(集)(中)(型)(中)(央)(计)(划)(体)(制)(向)(市)(场)(经)(济)(体)(制)(转)(轨)(的)(国)(家)(,其)(基)(本)(特)(点)(都)(是)(在)(转)(轨)(的)(过)(程)(中)(必)(然)(有)(巨)(大)(的)(财)(务)(窟)(窿)(。首)(先)(,转)(轨)(开)(始)(后)(,过)(去)(由)(中)(央)(计)(划)(集)(中)(配)(置)(资)(源)(所)(导)(致)(的)(失)(误)(必)(然)(要)(表)(现)(出)(来)(,或)(者)(表)(现)(为)(财)(政)(上)(有)(巨)(大)(的)(债)(务)(负)(担)(,或)(者)(表)(现)(为)(银)(行)(体)(系)(有)(巨)(额)(的)(不)(良)(资)(产)(。其)(次)(,在)(转)(轨)(的)(早)(期)(,由)(于)(法)(律)(法)(规)(和)(相)(关)(制)(度)(不)(健)(全)(,监)(管)(经)(验)(不)(足)(,监)(管)(人)(才)(缺)(乏)(,因)(此)(也)(必)(然)(有)(大)(量)(的)(损)(失)(,必)(然)(有)(政)(策)(性)(金)(融)(和)(商)(业)(性)(金)(融)(分)(不)(开)(,导)(致)(金)(融)(体)(系)(损)(失)(增)(加)(。中)(国)(在)(改)(革)(早)(期)(,有)(的)(企)(业)(发)(不)(出)(工)(资)(了)(,就)(连)(过)(年)(包)(饺)(子)(的)(钱)(也)(要)(银)(行)(先)(垫)(付)(,叫)(包)(饺)(子)(贷)(款)(。可)(以)(想)(象)(,饺)(子)(吃)(完)(了)(,什)(么)(都)(没)(剩)(下)(,拿)(什)(么)(去)(还)(呢)(?因)(此)(,金)(融)(体)(系)(的)(质)(量)(必)(然)(非)(常)(糟)(糕)(。
  中)(国)(当)(年)(的)(窟)(窿)(很)(大)(。1997年)(亚)(洲)(金)(融)(风)(波)(爆)(发)(时)(,中)(国)(银)(行)(体)(系)(不)(良)(资)(产)(率)(最)(少)(的)(估)(计)(是)(25%,多)(的)(估)(计)(是)(45%,具)(体)(数)(值)(取)(决)(于)(采)(用)(何)(种)(会)(计)(标)(准)(和)(贷)(款)(分)(类)(标)(准)(。如)(果)(是)(45%,银)(行)(业)(不)(良)(资)(产)(则)(将)(近)(当)(时)(GDP的)(一)(半)(,其)(中)(有)(相)(当)(部)(分)(体)(现)(为)(金)(融)(系)(统)(的)(损)(失)(。不)(光)(是)(中)(国)(,前)(苏)(联)(、东)(欧)(和)(一)(部)(分)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(,都)(经)(历)(了)(非)(常)(严)(重)(的)(财)(务)(困)(难)(,有)(的)(体)(现)(在)(财)(政)(,有)(的)(体)(现)(在)(金)(融)(体)(系)(。1998年)(,俄)(罗)(斯)(的)(大)(银)(行)(基)(本)(上)(都)(挺)(不)(住)(了)(,连)(国)(债)(都)(违)(约)(了)(,导)(致)(本)(来)(发)(生)(在)(亚)(洲)(的)(金)(融)(风)(波)(,在)(1998年)(8月)(底)(就)(传)(到)(了)(俄)(罗)(斯)(和)(巴)(西)(,随)(后)(就)(引)(起)(LTCM的)(倒)(闭)(。
  在)(国)(际)(比)(较)(时)(会)(发)(现)(,转)(轨)(经)(济)(体)(的)(金)(融)(体)(系)(改)(革)(发)(展)(都)(必)(然)(面)(临)(几)(大)(难)(关)(。如)(果)(没)(有)(强)(有)(力)(措)(施)(,不)(下)(大)(的)(决)(心)(,不)(清)(理)(财)(务)(不)(健)(康)(问)(题)(,不)(引)(入)(市)(场)(经)(济)(规)(律)(,银)(行)(体)(系)(将)(很)(难)(存)(续)(。其)(结)(果)(是)(,大)(多)(数)(前)(苏)(联)(、东)(欧)(国)(家)(、巴)(尔)(干)(国)(家)(的)(银)(行)(体)(系)(都)(挺)(不)(过)(去)(了)(,或)(几)(乎)(全)(部)(业)(务)(让)(给)(西)(方)(国)(家)(的)(银)(行)(进)(来)(做)(。可)(以)(看)(到)(,不)(少)(东)(欧)(国)(家)(的)(外)(资)(银)(行)(份)(额)(占)(到)(90%以)(上)(。中)(国)(目)(前)(外)(资)(银)(行)(在)(银)(行)(业)(总)(资)(产)(中)(占)(2%左)(右)(。由)(此)(可)(见)(,如)(果)(中)(国)(不)(经)(过)(一)(系)(列)(的)(财)(务)(重)(组)(,推)(进)(市)(场)(化)(、健)(康)(化)(、规)(范)(化)(,很)(可)(能)(本)(国)(银)(行)(体)(系)(也)(站)(不)(住)(。
  金)(融)(改)(革)(和)(发)(展)(要)(及)(时)(补)(课)(
  今)(天)(我)(们)(虽)(然)(有)(条)(件)(推)(动)(市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(和)(多)(元)(化)(改)(革)(,但)(在)(此)(过)(程)(中)(,也)(有)(个)(别)(需)(要)(补)(课)(的)(内)(容)(。因)(为)(有)(些)(改)(革)(过)(去)(曾)(经)(打)(算)(做)(,但)(由)(于)(遇)(到)(危)(机)(等)(各)(种)(各)(样)(的)(原)(因)(,被)(耽)(搁)(了)(下)(来)(。
  一)(是)(建)(立)(存)(款)(保)(险)(制)(度)(的)(初)(步)(框)(架)(。
  2015年)(5月)(1日)(,《存)(款)(保)(险)(条)(例)(》已)(经)(开)(始)(实)(施)(。存)(款)(保)(险)(制)(度)(是)(市)(场)(经)(济)(条)(件)(下)(银)(行)(体)(系)(健)(康)(发)(展)(的)(一)(个)(重)(要)(要)(素)(。既)(然)(允)(许)(大)(家)(办)(银)(行)(,现)(在)(又)(提)(出)(允)(许)(民)(营)(资)(本)(发)(起)(设)(立)(中)(小)(型)(银)(行)(,改)(善)(对)(社)(区)(、农)(村)(等)(薄)(弱)(环)(节)(的)(金)(融)(服)(务)(,就)(需)(要)(建)(立)(存)(款)(保)(险)(制)(度)(,按)(照)(市)(场)(化)(原)(则)(处)(置)(银)(行)(倒)(闭)(问)(题)(。按)(道)(理)(,存)(款)(保)(险)(制)(度)(早)(就)(应)(该)(建)(立)(,但)(因)(为)(各)(种)(原)(因)(没)(有)(做)(成)(,现)(在)(补)(上)(。
  二)(是)(推)(进)(政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(改)(革)(。
  1993年)(党)(的)(十)(四)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(决)(定)(成)(立)(三)(家)(政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(,承)(接)(当)(时)(专)(业)(银)(行)(的)(政)(策)(性)(业)(务)(,从)(而)(使)(大)(型)(银)(行)(可)(以)(转)(变)(为)(商)(业)(银)(行)(。但)(到)(了)(今)(天)(,政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(应)(该)(怎)(么)(往)(下)(改)(呢)(?对)(此)(,国)(际)(上)(的)(认)(识)(也)(是)(有)(反)(复)(的)(。在)(里)(根)(、撒)(切)(尔)(时)(代)(,国)(际)(上)(主)(张)(公)(营)(机)(构)(私)(有)(化)(,也)(确)(实)(有)(很)(多)(政)(策)(性)(金)(融)(机)(构)(经)(营)(得)(不)(好)(,造)(成)(了)(损)(失)(,1998年)(日)(本)(长)(期)(信)(用)(银)(行)(倒)(闭)(,造)(成)(很)(大)(的)(风)(波)(,因)(此)(普)(遍)(建)(议)(改)(掉)(这)(些)(机)(构)(。后)(来)(,在)(2008年)(全)(球)(金)(融)(危)(机)(时)(,国)(际)(社)(会)(发)(现)(,很)(多)(事)(情)(商)(业)(性)(金)(融)(机)(构)(还)(真)(做)(不)(了)(或)(不)(愿)(意)(做)(,需)(要)(有)(政)(策)(性)(金)(融)(机)(构)(做)(补)(充)(。同)(时)(,政)(策)(性)(机)(构)(的)(经)(营)(模)(式)(也)(发)(生)(了)(很)(大)(变)(化)(,不)(是)(一)(定)(就)(亏)(损)(、向)(国)(家)(要)(补)(贴)(。有)(些)(政)(策)(性)(金)(融)(机)(构)(在)(服)(务)(国)(家)(战)(略)(导)(向)(的)(同)(时)(,实)(现)(了)(财)(务)(上)(可)(持)(续)(,也)(注)(重)(提)(升)(效)(益)(。此)(外)(,全)(球)(很)(多)(公)(共)(基)(础)(设)(施)(和)(公)(用)(设)(施)(,通)(过)(改)(革)(变)(成)(可)(收)(费)(项)(目)(,比)(如)(说)(公)(路)(,这)(样)(政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(可)(以)(做)(成)(开)(发)(性)(金)(融)(。当)(然)(,这)(要)(做)(很)(多)(探)(索)(并)(及)(时)(总)(结)(、评)(估)(。
  总)(之)(,在)(当)(前)(阶)(段)(,我)(们)(需)(要)(补)(充)(做)(好)(一)(些)(改)(革)(工)(作)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,要)(按)(照)(党)(的)(十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(的)(战)(略)(部)(署)(,按)(照)(“十)(二)(五)(”规)(划)(收)(官)(之)(年)(的)(工)(作)(安)(排)(,迎)(接)(第)(十)(三)(个)(五)(年)(规)(划)(,继)(续)(做)(好)(以)(市)(场)(化)(、国)(际)(化)(、多)(元)(化)(为)(特)(征)(的)(金)(融)(改)(革)(发)(展)(各)(项)(工)(作)(。
  (此)(文)(发)(表)(于)(《中)(国)(金)(融)(》2015年)(第)(19期)(,原)(标)(题)(为)(《周)(小)(川)(:金)(融)(改)(革)(发)(展)(及)(其)(内)(在)(逻)(辑)(》)
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